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Citing Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism

How to avoid plagiarism and cite sources correctly.

Style Manuals

Books

In Notes & Bibliography style, the author signifies a source has been used by placing a superscript number at the end of the sentence using cited material, then putting citation information at the bottom on the page next to the corresponding number (this format is indicated with an N below). The source is then also listed in a bibliography at the end of the paper (this format indicated with a B below).

Basic Format

N: Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Date of Publication), page numbers.

B: Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name, Date of Publication.

Example - One Author

N: 1. Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997), 47-48.

B: Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997.

Purdue OWL: Chicago Style - Books

Journal Articles

Journal Article in Print

N: Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article," Title of JournalVolume Number (Date of Publication): page numbers.

B: Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): page numbers.

Example - Journal Article in Print

N: 4. Pramod K. Nayar, "Marvelous Excesses: English Travel Writing and India, 1680-1727," Journal of British Studies 44, no. 2 (April 2005): 213.

B: Nayar, Pramod K. "Marvelous Excesses: English Travel Writing and India, 1680-1727." Journal of British Studies 44, no. 2 (April 2005): 213-38.

Journal Article Online

N: Note Number. Author's First and Last Names, "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article," Title of JournalVolume Number (Date of Publication): page numbers, accessed Date of Access, stable URL.

B: Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article," Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): page numbers. Accessed date of access. Stable URL.

Example - Journal Article Online

N: 1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

B: Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

Purdue OWL: Chicago Style - Periodicals

Web Sources

Basic Format

N: 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

B: Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Example - Web Page with Known Author and Date

N: 7. Mister Jalopy, “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles,” Dinosaurs and Robots, last modified January 30, 2009, http://www.dinosaursandrobots.com/2009/01/effulgence-of-north-storefront-arctic.html.

B: Mister Jalopy. “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles.” Dinosaurs and Robots. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://www.dinosaursandrobots.com/2009/01/effulgence-of-north-storefront-arctic.html.

Example - Web Page with Unknown Author and Date

N: 9. “Band,” Casa de Calexico. accessed January 30, 2009, http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

B: “Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed January 30, 2009. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

Purdue OWL: Chicago Style - Web Sources