Skip to Main Content
Link to CSU Home
Link to CSU Home
Students in the Library

Michael Schwartz Library

Students in the Connection Lounge
Michael Schwartz Library

Citing Sources & Avoiding Plagiarism

How to avoid plagiarism and cite sources correctly.

APA Style Manual

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).


Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Example - One Author

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addition? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Example - Book Chapter

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Purdue OWL: ALA Citation - Books

Journal Articles

Basic Format

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxx

Example - Article from Online Periodical with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 224-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Example - Article from Online Periodical without DOI

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between percieved early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Purdue OWL: APA Citation - Electronic Sources

Web Sources

Basic Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example - Entire Website

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from

Purdue OWL: APA Citation - Electronic Sources

In-Text Citations

Material from your paper that's from another source needs to be cited both in the text immediately after the cited material (in-text or parenthetical citation) and at the end of the paper in the works cited. However, if you mention information about the source in the text of your paper, you do not need to include that information in the citation immediately afterward.

For example ...

Example 1: Jenkins (2003) described the beginning stages...
Example 2: In the beginning stages... (Jenkins, 2003)

(Box adapted from LMU/LA Library APA Guide)