Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Link to CSU Home
Link to CSU Home
Students in the Library

Michael Schwartz Library

216.687.2478
Students in the Connection Lounge
Michael Schwartz Library

Mandel Continuing Scholar Summer Seminar

A guide for students completing research in the Mandel Continuing Scholars program.

Evaluating Sources

Before using any information you should critically evaluate source, especially if it is from a website.  

Put it through the CRA(A)P Test

CURRENCY: Is the material current? Does it contain outdated or disproven information? Is the site updated regularly?

RELEVANCE/RELIABILITY: Does the source answer your questions?  Does it provide useful information? Is it too complicated to understand or too elementary?

AUTHORITY: Who is the author? What can you find out about them? Can you determine their credentials? Are they a qualified expert? Is the author's contact info listed?

(ACCURACY: What evidence does the author use? Are facts documented? Is there a bibliography?)

PURPOSE: Why was the information created: to inform, to sell, to persuade? Is it fact or opinion? Is the information biased? 

The CRAAP Test was created by Merriam Library, California State University at Chico

Primary and Secondary Sources